Maintenance is included in the monthly lease fee, with a certain level of service guaranteed. They are available as electromechanical or electronic devices. Time switch with astronomical feature. Less than one-half 47 percent report that they themselves most often specify the dimming system, although more than one-fourth 27 percent report that the engineer most often specifies the system. It was also shown that older workers made more errors than younger workers, and that improved lighting had a far more pronounced impact on error reduction for older workers than for their younger counterparts.
Its transmitting performance is similar to that of a coaxial cable, as are its expandability and maintenance requirements. Even wallbox dimmers, which have generally been considered stand-alone devices, now can be interfaced and controlled by external systems. Can the system be expanded or upgraded easily? If the customer falls below the baseline, it receives a financial credit. Lighting controls can be used to qualify not only for one-time incentives, but ongoing incentives through certain demand response programs. The research suggests that the use of dimming systems is steadily increasing, largely due to lighting industry participants specifying and recommending dimming systems to their clients primarily to provide the benefits of flexibility and energy savings in their projects. Operating cost comparisons for private office and open office spaces, using various types of controls. Furthermore, many of these programs are written in such a way that they can be modified relatively easily, either by the user or by the manufacturer.
Units that are easy to install will reduce costs and improve the return on investment. The code provides a table that identifies equipment options lamps, ballasts, fixtures with associated percentages of lighting density reductions. And a broad range of commercially available products and technologies are available from controls manufacturers to address all code requirements and specific opportunities. Applications of Lighting Design Lighting design matches the supply of light to the needs of a space—whether a school, office, hospital, or retail store. For this reason, many are subsidizing the cost of lowering demand by offering rebates and other financial incentives. In some cases, a historic comparative analysis of lighting energy cost by individual load can be performed to identify operating problems. Exterior Lighting Exterior lighting not exempted in the Standard must be controlled by a photocell or astronomical timeclock.
Less than one-third 31 percent say the distributor creates the bill of material and requests a price from the manufacturer. Be sure to include overrides by wall switch, telephone, or network interface for unusual circumstances. Wall- and ceiling-mounted occupancy sensors. Occupancy sensors may be mounted on a ceiling or wall. While cost naturally must be a criterion, reliability, maintenance requirements, guarantees, and availability of service, among other factors, can be just as important. Power-line Carrier Controls Power-line carrier control systems create an alternative to extensive re-wiring in retrofit or the installation of control wiring in new construction.
In larger centralized lighting control systems, the central processor, the computer, field devices, and all the other electronic equipment must be maintained. A majority of electrical contractor respondents 80 percent say they would specify dimming systems more often or much more often if their most important barrier to specification was removed. Where is the nearest service office? Daylighting examples assume a design light level of 55 footcandles at work surfaces. What does the cost include and exclude? In these situations, it is desirable to control luminaires adjacent to the glazing separately from those further in to obtain maximum energy savings while still providing necessary task illumination. Error Reduction The same lighting control that contributes to enhanced worker productivity can also contribute to error avoidance.
Get the Support of Other Team Members Lighting controls can have beneficial effects on other areas of the building design. Because the entire system is powered and controlled over a standard Ethernet connection and PoE ports, network-enabled PoE devices can provide any user immediate access and building automation control over the entire system. Identifying, Selecting, and Evaluating Control Options 69 Wiring diagrams of the system also are essential during maintenance procedures; someone who understands the diagrams must be available. System Dimmers System dimmers offer lighting control for larger applications where wallbox and integrated products are impractical or higher performance is required. While the price of so many other products has increased, the cost of modern lighting controls has come down, due in large part to the twin impacts of mass production of electronic components and competition.
. This book provides in-depth information about the major trends, technologies, codes, and design techniques shaping the use of today's lighting control systems, including dimming, automatic switching, and global as well as personal control. The cost of errors can be huge, leading to lost time and, potentially, more serious consequences. They responded favorably to all, with the strongest interest being in low-cost electronic dimming ballasts, standard protocols and plug-and-play solutions see Table 6-7—opposite. Economic evaluations must take into account a number of specific factors. One of these makes the device more or less sensitive to motion.
Manufacturer services somewhat meet lighting designer expectations, generally do not meet engineer expectations, and somewhat meet distributor expectations, the research suggests. Selection of controls for various types of spaces: room by room analysis. Cabinets may contain any number of dimmers capable of handling small and large loads controlling a variety of lamp sources. For example, the maximum power allowance is 1. If applied improperly, however, they force the owner to bypass them or remove them altogether. The end result is remarkable and brings more safety, productivity, and savings. They are installed to prevent unauthorized or accidental use of certain lighting circuits.
As an example, consider Figure 1-4 which represents one section of an office illuminated by 12 four-lamp fixtures. Controls should make sense and provide flexibility to all users. None of the respondent groups rates extending lamp life, obtaining utility rebates and incentives, and adding value to the design to be of high importance. The typical networked control system shown in Figure 1-17 provides cost-effective automated lighting control for applications ranging from a small office building to a mall to an industrial complex. Is the application comparable to the one being contemplated? Electrical contractors were asked, for those occasions that they substitute items against the original specifications, why they do so, choosing from a list of possible reasons. . Particularly in those areas where an error can have costly consequences, obtaining the best possible lighting is a wise investment.
These systems rely on small receivers installed inside luminaires to control ballast operation. Respondents were also asked to identify the market participant who most often specifies the dimming systems in their building projects, as well as which market participant who most often commissions the dimming system. Respondents were read a list of potential advances in controls and asked whether these advances would help facilitate the use and application of control systems. Engineer respondents report that, overall, they do not specify dimming systems in about one-half 51 percent of their building projects. Compatibility of Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballasts in Frequently Switched Applications.