Yet, because loyalties privilege their objects, the provision of a justification is important. Williams obviously has a point, though even he concedes that such projects are not impervious to universalistic challenges Williams, 17—18. We are to conform our lives into the image of Christ. In the more interesting case of a loyal Nazi whose loyalty expresses itself in anti-semitic forms, we could respond in one of two ways. And you can trust us to keep any secret of yours--closer than you keep it yourself. Is there a right and a wrong in such cases? Football teams and coffee chains, gangs and crime families, may become objects of loyalty no less than professional associations and siblings.
We might think that both a state and loyalty to it are important. On this account, loyalty can be seen as a mechanism whereby we at least temporarily persist in our association with the institution or affiliation while efforts are made through giving voice to bring it back on track. As omissions, failures to blow the whistle must engage with debates about the moral obligatoriness of our acting to prevent harm. Given what is often seen as the self-sacrificial character of individual loyalty, such loyalty is taken to be directed primarily to group survival West, 218. One who is loyal, in the sense of , is one who is lawful as opposed to an , who has full legal rights as a consequence of faithful to a feudal lord.
Scope encompasses an element of constraint. Our love and appreciation for what He has done for us on the cross drives our loyalty to Him. One loyalty may trump another. Nevertheless, the existence of a loyal opposition need not preclude the possibility that a more radical opposition might and indeed should subsequently be mounted. Obligations of gratitude are recompensive, whereas obligations of loyalty are associative. Royce, who sometimes appears absolutist about loyalty, seeks to avoid the problems of absolutism in two ways. Like other executive virtues, it can become attached to unworthy objects—one may be a loyal Nazi or sincere racist.
It is only if we mistakenly or misguidedly think of loyalty as making an absolute claim on us that a derogatory charge of conservatism against a loyal opposition will have traction. Loyalty to people and abstract notions such as causes or ideals is considered an , as there is a greater chance of survival and procreation if animals belong to loyal packs. The two positions constitute the beginnings of a consideration of the nature of intimacy, what it reasonably demands of us, and how we should respond to transgressions of its expectations. Learn to remember you got great friends, don't forget that and they will always care for you no matter what. A morally compromised whistleblower, however, may find his or her credibility undermined and the exposé rendered ineffective.
They have worked hard with me to advance the gospel, along with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the Book of Life. The god is prepared to admit him to Heaven, but refuses to admit the dog, so Yudhishthira refuses to abandon the dog, and prepares to turn away from the gates of Heaven. We should probably not acquiesce in the relativistic view that what is right for one is wrong for the other. Hosea 6:6 For I delight in loyalty rather than sacrifice, And in the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings. Ladd considers loyalty from two perspectives: its proper object and its moral value. The same may be true of other loyalties. Both consequentialist and Kantian universalism have some difficulty in accommodating particularist virtues such as loyalty, and on occasion have eschewed the latter.
Kleinig agrees with Baron, noting that a person's earliest and strongest loyalties are almost always to people, and that only later do people arrive at abstract notions like values, causes, and ideals. Loyalty to a particular object is forfeited—that is, its claims for the protection and reinforcement of associative identity and commitment run out—when the object shows itself to be no longer capable of being a source of associational satisfaction or identity-giving significance. Just as we personify organizations, regarding them as in some sense responsible actors, so we can attribute loyalty to them or—more often—bemoan their lack of loyalty to those who have been loyal to them. Critical responses to Josiah Royce, 1885—1916. Some defenders and critics of loyalty take the frequent presence of C as a reason for seeing loyalty as inherently exclusionary.
Generally speaking, a loyal opposition will not advocate the equivalent of rebellion or revolution for the latter would jeopardize the object of loyalty and perhaps lead to its replacement by an alternative object of loyalty. If the type of institution is thought to be critical to human flourishing, then loyalty to it will be expected. Every morning he shows it in new ways! But it is not clear what any such explanatory account shows. It is the commitment to opposition within what are judged to be the prevailing structures that has led some radical critics of loyalty e. But whatever the merits of such arguments as grounds for general institutional obligations, they do not provide grounds for the particularistic obligations that we connect with loyalty. Judah Goldin, New York: Pantheon Books.
But that does not make the executive virtues merely contingent or optional. Anonymous whistle blowing represents a possible solution; it opens the door, however, to disruptive whistles being blown for the wrong reasons or after careless investigation cf. On the one hand, we could point to the fact that the loyalty is likely to aggravate the harm caused. There may be some truth to the view that we are more likely to show bad faith as far as our unchosen loyalties are concerned, but it may be difficult to offer that as a general comment on unchosen loyalties. Tie them around your neck as a reminder.
True loyalty will result in actions. Although gratitude as a ground of obligation also stands in need of justification McConnell , it tends to be more widely acceptable as a justifying reason than loyalty. Obligations of loyalty presuppose an associational identification that more general institutional or membership obligations do not. In the extreme view, one that Nathanson ascribes to religious extremists and xenophobes for examples, all loyalties bar one's own are considered illegitimate. In contexts in which the human race can itself be viewed as a collectivity, loyalty to it may sometimes be attributed. One can, for example, be loyal to one's friends, or one's family, and still, without contradiction, be loyal to one's religion, or profession.
Because such employees are generally considered disloyal, it has been common to characterize them as traitors, snitches, weasels, squealers, or rats. Others, of course, may dispute this. Kleinig observes that from the 1980s onwards, the subject gained attention, with philosophers variously relating it to , , , and. Overall, then, a loyalty to friends and family, and commitment to ground projects may maximize good, even though, were one to make a subjective calculation, it would undermine the loyalty or commitment. Royce presents loyalty, which he defines at length, as the basic moral principle from which all other principles can be derived. Although any member of an organization might have some responsibility for what is done in its name, some members will be better placed to make appropriate assessments of seriousness and may be more responsible for the way in which the organization conducts its activities. Nevertheless, dimensions of the phenomenon that we now recognize as loyalty are as ancient as human association, albeit often manifested in its breaches disloyalty, betrayal.