At worst, this simplification aimed at blocking off again precisely the theoretical paths the notion of Nachleben had opened up. Nosso serviço de entregas não permite encomendas feitas com endereçamento de Caixa Postal. In these sentences one seems to hear the echo of two symmetric exaltations—both of them idealist—the one stemming from Vasari, the other from Winckelmann. Didi-Huberman offers insightful readings and criticism of such scholars as Ernst Cassirer, Erwin Panofsky, and Ernst Gombrich, accused of trafficking in 'canons, ideal entities and transcendental notions, ' not to mention a more general denunciation of unnamed practitioners of a 'positivist' art history. All that appears, then, is the quality of the figurable—terribly concrete, illegible, presented. Here, also, the concepts are much too vague…. Such is Warburg today: a survivor whose presence is urgent for art history.
The sociologist of images, the iconologist, the archaeologist using an electron microscope, the museum curator who is familiar with spectrometric analyses — are they still burdened with such philosophical problems? Only the two faces have been emphasized: heightened lightly with white, worked with crimson. Only one conceptual difficulty remained to be resolved: the notion of a renaissance contrasts with that of a survival with regard to two aspects that are not easily coordinated. As for Warburg, he has been ignored not only by positivist art historians, but also by historians sympathetic to structuralism, even by the best scholars of the Annales school. But was this problem really all that new? Next to the fresco is a small window, facing east, that provides enough light to envelop our faces and veil the anticipated spectacle. I do not say that the bianco di San Giovanni, the pigment used in the little cell of the monastery, represented the Incarnation, or that it served as an iconographic attribute of the central mystery of Christianity. It is not an articulated sign, it is not legible as such.
A single example will suffice to bring out this contrast: in his article of 1902 on the Florentine portrait, Warburg begins, precisely, with a topic involving Franciscan iconography— The Confirmation of the Rule of the order of St. Se após a compra forem apontados vícios de fabricação do produto, o consumidor poderá solicitar a devolução dos valores cobrados de acordo com a política de devoluções da Saraiva. Quite soon, our curiosity about details of representation is likely to diminish, and a certain unease, a certain disappointment begins to dim the clarity of our gazes. There is here a marvel of figurability—in the image of everything that consumes us in the self-evidence of dreams. But it is very difficult to name it as one would a simple object.
At the very least, one can easily sense the eminently problematic nature of that expression: what conception of art must it imply in order that one might write its history? How should this framework of paradoxes be understood? This is what one tends to assume, without giving the matter much thought, in the light of modern anthropology, which, from Marcel Mauss to Claude Lévi-Strauss, has supposedly produced the necessary reorientation of ethnological concepts that were too deeply marked by essentialism as in Frazer or by empiricism as in Malinowski. We are not, however, privy to the purposes of eternal wisdom: they are beyond our ken. For example, in studying the forms of Greek metrics, Usener conceived of the latter as a symptom of overall culture, seeking for survivals up through the period of medieval music; and, reciprocally, he approached acts of belief generally as forms that, in every specific case, had to be addressed with the tools of the philologist. It is in fact so, and I have taken up this course of argument with full knowledge and intent. The history of art is simply the history of its development and its decline.
The slippage in the vocabulary is significant: we move from art history Kunstgeschichte to a science of culture Kulturwissenschaft , and this move simultaneously opens up the field of objects to be studied and sharpens the formulation of the fundamental problems. Might there not be a time for the memory of images—an obscure game of the repressed and its eternal return — that is not the one proposed by this history of art, by this narrative? The goal of a history of art? There is every reason to believe that a budding iconographer entering this tiny cell would need only a couple of seconds, once the fresco was visible, to read into it: Luke 1:26—38. Ostensibly about Warburg, the range and significance of this key work of art theory and historiography is far wider, for it deals with important philosophical questions to do with art, memory, time, and the construction of art-historical knowledge. We can, however, advance a little. Where history and art come to impede the history of art First platitude: art is over.
It is the fundamental problem, the one for which he gathered all that material in archives and libraries, seeking to understand the sedimentations and shifts that occurred in the many different terrains involved. One cannot imagine, in the 19th century, a more pointed critique of historicism bent on unity of time or of aestheticism bent on unity of style. What should we conclude from this play of borrowings and debates if not that evolutionism produced its own crisis, its own internal critique? The latter have disappeared and have been replaced by later copies. O valor pago será restituído pelo mesmo meio de pagamento utilizado na compra. On the one hand, he can be incomplete, biased, and even mistaken regarding certain historical facts; on the other hand, his hypothesis about memory—the specific type of memory presupposed by Nachleben—has profoundly altered our very understanding of what an historical phenomenon is. Resurrected souls are intangible but have the advantage of immortality and omnipresence.
Precisely the fact that it was not an object, but rather a complex of relations—indeed, a pile, a conglomeration, or a rhizome of relations. In fact, in his attempts to establish a theoretical foundation for his work, Tylor devoted a major portion of his efforts to this concept. We sense a kind of depressive latching on to a feeling of irremediable loss and to a terrible suspicion: is the object whose history has just been told not simply the result of a phantasmic illusion by means of which this feeling, or the loss itself, may well have misled us. Francis, portrayed by Giotto in the Church of Santa Croce and by Ghirlandaio in Santa Trinita—which renders the absence of any reference to Thode all the more flagrant. To say that the present bears the mark of multiple pasts is above all to assert the indestructibility of the stamp of time—or of several time periods—on the forms themselves of our present life.
But it intensifies it beyond its limits, it deploys something else, it reaches its spectator by other paths. The unappeased ghost of a certain philological and philosophical tradition, Warburg thus wanders through a twofold and elusive time. There is a third, still more fundamental cause of the ghostly aspect of this thought, namely style—and, therefore, time. But not by the contemplation of real objects. This growth and decay Wachsen und Vergehen follows higher, inscrutable laws of life höhere, unergründliche Lebensgesetze.
Might there not be a time for symptoms in the history of the images of art?. Imitation, of course, is a highly paradoxical concept. Thus, as a first approximation, the image—starting with those portraits of Florentine bankers that Warburg examined with a particular fervor—is viewed as what survives of a population of ghosts. Upon his death, in 1929, the obituaries devoted to him—penned by scholars as distinguished as Erwin Panofsky and Ernst Cassirer—displayed the great respect due to ancestors who really matter. History, then, is to be a symptomatology or even a pathology of time, which it would be wrong, however, to reduce to a simple moral pessimism, even though an element of tragedy is everywhere visible in it. In this respect, the analysis of survivals clearly appears to be a matter of analyzing symptomatic manifestations as much as phantasmal ones.